Find out the disks on the system
Run the short test in the background[^1].
smartctl -t short /dev/ada0
Then run a conveyance test (for any damage during shipping)
smartctl -t conveyance /dev/ada0
Then check for bad
badblocks -ws /dev/ada0
Then run a long test[^4].
smartctl -t long /dev/ada0
-a flag shows you everything about the drives
smartctl -a /dev/ada0
including the time remaining for the tests
Self-test execution status: ( 249) Self-test routine in progress... 90% of test remaining.
and the time it would take to run the tests:
Short self-test routine recommended polling time: ( 2) minutes. Extended self-test routine recommended polling time: ( 529) minutes. Conveyance self-test routine recommended polling time: ( 5) minutes.
To see the results after the tests have run
smartctl -l selftest /dev/ada0
-C to run in foreground. But then again, why would you?
[^2]: The non-destructive version is
[^3]: This is a 2-phase, 4-pass command that will take a long time. On
a 4TB WD Red, the whole process was done in about 75 hours.
[^4]: This took about 8 hours on a 4TB WD Red.